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矿震和水库地震等非天然地震的公共服务需求调查研究
徐志双, 高小跃, 李志强, 吴天安, 郑通彦, 文鑫涛, 何润良, 李华玥, 王尅丰
中国地震台网中心, 北京 100045
摘要:
采矿、水库蓄水等人类活动可能伴随地震的发生,其突发性和破坏性会对公共安全、社会稳定和经济发展带来威胁。本文围绕国内外矿震、水库地震等非天然地震事件的公共服务需求和相关部门的应急处置措施进行调研分析,发现对于不同类型的地震,公共服务需求存在差异,归纳得到以下针对地震部门和相关单位的应急处置对策建议:震前,完善和落实应急预案,提升建(构)筑物抗震设防等级,规范相关企业行为;震时,判别地震类型并核准地震信息,多部门联动开展应急响应,完善灾情收集渠道;震后,注重科普宣传和舆论疏导。平震结合,多方协调,可有效应对非天然地震事件,维护社会稳定和谐。
关键词:  人类活动  非天然地震  矿震  水库地震  应急处置
DOI:
分类号:P315
基金项目:中国地震局2019年重大政策理论与实践问题研究课题(CEAZY2019JZ21)资助
Investigation on Public Service Demand of Earthquakes Induced by Human Activities Including Mining and Reservoir Impoundment
Xu Zhishuang, Gao Xiaoyue, Li Zhiqiang, Wu Tian-an, Zheng Tongyan, Wen Xintao, He Runliang, Li Huayue, Wang Keifeng
China Earthquake Networks Center, Beijing 100045, China
Abstract:
Human activities such as mining and reservoir impoundment may induce earthquakes,in which suddenness and destructiveness pose threats to public safety,social stability and economic development. Research and analysis have been taken on the demand for public service and the suggestions for emergency response to human-induced earthquake events including mining and reservoir-induced earthquakes in domestic and overseas. It is demonstrated that the public shows different demands in various types of earthquakes. Consequently,the following suggestions for the earthquake agency and related departments have been revealed:upgrading and implementing emergency plans,improving seismic rating of buildings and structures,while standardizing corporate behaviors before earthquakes;identifying earthquake types,checking and verifying earthquake information,uniting multiple departments to make emergency response and improving disaster information collection methods during earthquakes;paying attention to popular science promotion and media guidance after earthquakes. Taking efforts in peacetime and during earthquakes for the earthquake agencies and related departments helps to effectively deal with human-induced earthquakes,therefore maintaining social stability.
Key words:  Human activities  Induced earthquake  Mining-induced seismicity  Reservoir-induced seismicity  Emergency response