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强震变形的地震大地测量监测与研究
刘刚1, 乔学军1, 王琪2
1.中国地震局地震研究所地震大地测量重点实验室, 武汉 430071;2.中国地质大学(武汉), 武汉 430074
摘要:
地震大地测量是将大地测量(特别是空间大地测量)与地震学及构造地质学进行融合的新兴交叉学科,其可用于监测地震孕育的地球物理背景场及动态变化过程,对相关形变实现了102a~10-2s的宽频带监测,基本弥补了地震学与构造地质学间的频率空白。以多频带的地震大地测量技术(GNSS、InSAR、高频GNSS)为支撑的陆态网络工程,不仅获得了中国大陆长期的地壳运动图像,而且在强震形变监测中发挥了重要作用。汶川、芦山、尼泊尔廓尔喀及九寨沟等地震的研究成果表明,高频/静态GNSS、InSAR、精密水准相融合的多频大地测量,极大地拓展了地震形变监测的时空频域,促进了大陆型地震的相关研究,为地震预测预警研究奠定了基础。然而,目前使用的地震大地测量资料有限,同时,我国地震大地测量监测网络也有待不断加密和优化。
关键词:  地震大地测量  同震形变  GNSS  InSAR
DOI:
分类号:P315
基金项目:地震科技星火计划(XH20038)、国家自然科学基金(41874018、41731071)和国家重点研发计划(2018YFE0206100)共同资助
Seismo-geodetic Measurements and Analysis of Some Recent Large Earthquakes
Liu Gang1, Qiao Xuejun1, Wang Qi2
1.Key Laboratory of Earthquake Geodesy, Institute of Seismology, CEA, Wuhan 430071, China;2.China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
Abstract:
Seismogeodesy is a developing discipline jointing the seismology and tectonics with its ability of determining the geophysical field associated with earthquake-cycle,in which the measured deformation ranging in 102a~10-2s fills-up the gap between seismology and tectonics. The Crustal Movement Observation Network of China(CMONOC)composed with the multiple space geodesy technologies that are capable of broadband observations not only depicts the image of crustal deformation in China,but also plays an important role in measuring the displacement associated with the large earthquake,such as the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake,2013 Lushan earthquake,2015 Gorkha earthquake and 2017 Jiuzhaigou earthquake. For these above earthquakes the geodetic measurements from static/high rate GNSS,InSAR and Leveling construct the coseismic displacement field,and contribute to the studies of source kinematics,intraplate earthquake mechanism,and earthquake early warming. However,the limited resolution of CMONOC at present is not sufficient enough to develop demands of seismogeodesy,and the farther enhancement is needed.
Key words:  Seismogeodesy  Coseismic displacement  GNSS  InSAR