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地基GNSS遥感探测气象应用
梁宏1, 曹云昌1, 梁静舒1, 万晓敏2, 赵盼盼1,3, 涂满红1, 王海深1, 胡姮1
1.中国气象局气象探测中心, 北京 100081;2.中国气象局数值预报中心, 北京 100081;3.成都信息工程大学, 电子工程学院, 成都 610225
摘要:
全球导航卫星系统(GNSS)给定位、导航和授时服务带来了革命性变化,同时其L波段(1160~1610MHz)微波信号可用于全球覆盖、高时间分辨率的大气、海洋和陆表参数遥感探测。基于信号类型,GNSS遥感可分为折射信号遥感和反射信号遥感两大类;基于探测平台,GNSS遥感可分为地基GNSS遥感、空基GNSS遥感和天基GNSS遥感三大类。随着我国自主建设的北斗卫星导航系统全面建成,GNSS遥感将迎来新的发展机遇和挑战。本文回顾近20年地基GNSS遥感探测在气象领域的应用进展,展望其在气象领域下一步可能的应用。
关键词:  地基GNSS  遥感  气象应用  折射信号遥感  反射信号遥感
DOI:
分类号:P315
基金项目:中国气象局气候变化专项(CCSF202045)、国家自然科学基金(41971377、41804023、41961144015)、中国大陆环境构造监测网络工程项目和国家重点研发计划(2017YFC1501802)共同资助
A Review of the Ground-based GNSS Remote Sensing in Meteorological Applications
Liang Hong1, Cao Yunchang1, Liang Jingshu1, Wan Xiaomin2, Zhao Panpan1,3, Tu Manhong1, Wang Haishen1, Hu Heng1
1.Meteorological Observation Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China;2.Numerical Weather Prediction Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China;3.School of Electronic Engineering, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225, China
Abstract:
Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS)has revolutionized the positioning,navigation and timing service for modern social activities. The L-band signals(1160~1610 MHz)emitted from GNSS satellites are available all over the world and can be used to retrieve the physical parameters related to atmosphere,ocean and land surface with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Based on signal types,the concepts of GNSS remote sensing include two categories,i.e. GNSS refractometry and GNSS reflectometry(GNSS-R). These concepts can also be classified into three categories:ground-based GNSS remote sensing,airborne GNSS remote sensing and spaceborne GNSS remote sensing based on different platforms. As the third generation of China Beidou GNSS system started to provide full service in summer of the year 2020,the GNSS users around the world may have more opportunities as well as face more challenges on further exploiting the multi-GNSS(GPS,BDS,GLONASS and Galileo)signals in civil service. In this study we make a comprehensive review of ground-based GNSS remote sensing for meteorological applications including weather nowcasting,numerical weather prediction,climate change,space weather monitoring and validations of satellite and radiosonde observations during recent two decades.
Key words:  Ground-based GNSS  Remote sensing  Meteorological application  Refractometry  Reflectometry