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微震研究与应用进展
冯甜, 吴建平, 房立华
中国地震局地球物理研究所, 北京 100081
摘要:
随着地震观测台站密度的不断增加以及地震检测技术的快速发展,微震研究受到了地震学界的广泛关注。与发震周期较长的大地震相比,微震复发周期短、发生频次高,可以获得更高分辨率的地壳内部介质物性和应力状态等变化信息。微震在许多领域具有广泛的应用,如研究断层几何形态、前震与地震成核的关系、余震时空演化特征及余震触发机理、远程动态触发现象、重复地震、诱发地震以及非火山震颤信号的检测等。高精度的微震定位结果可以揭示断裂带的精细几何形态和深部活动过程,促进对断层特性和地震物理过程的深入认识。本文简要总结了国内外微震研究的主要进展,包括微震检测的主要方法和微震在多个领域的研究实例,并对微震在地震科学中的应用前景进行了展望。
关键词:  微震  微震检测  模板匹配方法  波形互相关  断层几何形态
DOI:
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFC1503400)、国家自然科学基金(41774067)和中国地震局地球物理研究所基本科研业务费专项(DQJB20X07)共同资助
A Review on Research and Application of Microseismicity
Feng Tian, Wu Jianping, Fang Lihua
Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:
With the increasing density of seismic stations and the rapid development of earthquake detection methods,microseismic research has received extensive attention from the seismology community. Compared with strong earthquakes with longer recurrence period,small earthquakes,however,have a shorter recurrence period and a higher occurrence frequency,which can be used to obtain higher resolution information on changes in the physical properties and stress state of the crust. Small earthquakes have a wide application in many seismological studies,such as the fault geometry,the relationship between foreshocks and earthquake nucleation,the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and triggering mechanism of aftershocks,remote dynamic triggering,repeating earthquakes,induced seismicity,and detection of non-volcanic tremors,etc. High-precision earthquake location results can reveal the precise fault geometry and the fault activity process,and therefore promote our further understanding for fault characteristics and earthquake physical process. In this paper,we briefly review some important advance in recent microseismic research,including major methods of earthquake detection and case studies of microseismicity in many fields. Lastly,we make some prospects on microseismic applications in earthquake science.
Key words:  Microseismicity  Microseismic detection  Template matching  Waveform cross-correlation  Fault geometry