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“交通灯”系统及其在诱发地震监测中的应用
邱宇1, 房立华1,2, 王蕊嘉3, 范莉苹1,2, 蒋长胜1
1.中国地震局地球物理研究所, 北京 100081;2.中国地震局震源物理重点实验室, 北京 100081;3.新墨西哥大学, 阿尔伯克基 87131
摘要:
随着页岩气开采、地热能源开采、CO2封存和水库蓄水等工业活动的开展,由此产生的诱发地震危害问题日益严重。为了对诱发地震进行有效监测和管控,地震学家设计了"交通灯"系统,当地震活动达到一定阈值时,相关人员可根据系统警报及时采取应对措施,减轻地震灾害。本文调研了近年来多个国家的"交通灯"系统研究和应用进展,介绍了其发展历史、设置原理及应用案例。"交通灯"系统的发展和完善应综合考虑震级、震动强度、b值和断层分布,以及建筑结构、城镇距离、人口密度、公众反应等社会因素。同时,在诱发地震频发区域,应建设密集的专用监测台网,提高微震检测和定位能力,并引入模板匹配和人工智能等新的自动处理方法,及时产出高完备性、高精度的微震目录,对微震的时空演化进行有效监测,形成时效性较强的"交通灯"系统。
关键词:  工业开采  诱发地震  “交通灯”系统  微震监测
DOI:
分类号:P315
基金项目:中国地震局地球物理研究所基本科研业务费专项(DQJB20X07、DQJB20Y34)资助
Traffic Light System and Its Application on Induced Earthquake Monitoring
Qiu Yu1, Fang Lihua1,2, Wang Ruijia3, Fan Liping1,2, Jiang Changsheng1
1.Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081, China;2.Key Laboratory of Earthquake Source Physics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081, China;3.University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM 87131, USA
Abstract:
The continuous expansion of unconventional resource exploitation is often accompanied by the threat of induced seismicity,where fluid extraction and injection involved with industrial activities like shale gas exploitation,mining and CO2 storage have all led to unexpected earthquakes around the world. Regulation of such anthropogenic seismic events lead to the establishments of traffic light system in various regions,in which as a near real-time response,the system often demands reduction or shut down of industrial activities,aiming to minimize the potential seismic hazard and risk after the occurrence of certain magnitude earthquakes. In this paper,we review the traffic light systems in the world by revisiting their development history,regulation principles and application outcomes. Overall,the development of traffic light system should integrate parameters such as magnitude,vibration intensity,b-value and fault distribution,as well as social factors like building structure,urban distance,population density and public response. In areas where unexpected earthquakes are frequently induced,dedicated dense seismic monitoring network should be deployed to enhance microseismic detection and location,whereas the state-of-the-art methods(i.e.,template matching,artificial intelligence)should be adopted to provide timely catalogs that reflects detailed spatial-temporal evolution of microseismic,serving for time-sensitive traffic light systems.
Key words:  Unconventional resource exploitation  Induced seismicity  Traffic light system  Microseismicity monitoring